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The stated goal of the cruise missile and bombing attacks was to strike military and security targets in Iraq that contributed to Iraq's ability to produce, store, maintain, and deliver weapons of mass destruction.
The bombing campaign had been anticipated since February and incurred wide-ranging criticism and support, at home and abroad. President Bill Clinton had been working under a regional security framework of dual containment , which involved punishing Saddam Hussein's regime with military force whenever Iraq challenged the United States or the international community.
Despite the act's intention of support of opposition groups, Clinton justified his order for US action under the act.
Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize or otherwise speak to the use of United States Armed Forces except as provided in section 4 a 2 in carrying out this Act.
The President is authorized to direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, and military education and training for [Iraqi democratic opposition] organizations.
Just prior to Desert Fox, the U. It was abandoned at the last minute when the Iraqi leader allowed the UN to continue weapons inspections.
Clinton administration officials said the aim of the mission was to "degrade" Iraq's ability to manufacture and use weapons of mass destruction, not to eliminate it.
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright was asked about the distinction while the operation was going on: . I don't think we're pretending that we can get everything, so this is — I think — we are being very honest about what our ability is.
We are lessening, degrading his ability to use this. The weapons of mass destruction are the threat of the future. I think the president explained very clearly to the American people that this is the threat of the 21st century.
The main targets of the bombing included weapons research and development installations, air defense systems, weapon and supply depots, and the barracks and command headquarters of Saddam's elite Republican Guard.
Also, one of Saddam's lavish presidential palaces came under attack. Iraqi air defense batteries, unable to target the American and British jets, began to blanket the sky with near random bursts of flak fire.
The air strikes continued unabated however, and cruise missile barrages launched by naval vessels added to the bombs dropped by the planes.
By the fourth night, most of the specified targets had been damaged or destroyed, the operation was deemed a success and the air strikes ended.
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President George H. Bush immediately condemned the invasion, as did the governments of Britain and the Soviet Union.
On November 29, , the U. Retrieved 29 December University of Alabama Press. Retrieved 11 October Best Books on. Retrieved 8 June Imam Khomeini.
Retrieved 31 May Georgetown University Press. Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 10 April Accessed 31 March Terrorism, U.
Strategy, and Reagan Policies. Greenwood Publishing Group. Katherine Holt 24 April Retrieved 30 September Timothy Schemmer Presidio Press.
Retrieved 8 August Islamic Republic News Agency. Retrieved 11 April Comprehensive center of contemporary Iranian history. Political Studies and Research Institute.
Militarty Operation in Tabas". Carolinas Aviation Museum. Retrieved 1 October Iranian Movie DataBase in Persian. Hamed Zamani Music. Archived from the original on 27 March Beckwith, Col.
Charlie A. Bottoms, Mike Bowden, Mark Atlantic Monthly Press. Carter, Jimmy 1 October Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President.
Bantam Books. Gabriel, Richard A. The Iraq army subsequently set oil wells on fire in January and February of , and some of these fires were not extinguished until November of the same year.
Casualties from both sides were vastly different, as the United States held a distinct advantage with their superior air power and technology.
The United States and other Coalition troops sustained troop deaths and injuries on the battlefield. The Iraqi army suffered many, many more casualties with numbers ranging from 20,, deaths and as much as 75, injured during Operation Desert Storm.
This war was the first conflict to be broadcast live around-the-clock, and many media scholars maintain that the coverage of the war was similar to that of a video game, effectively desensitizing the mainstream public to seeing live killings and military operations broadcast on news networks.
Some authors maintain that the invasion of Kuwait in eventually lead to the United States' Iraq invasion and occupation due to tactics used by Hussein in the aftermath of the First Gulf War.
Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. The United Kingdom played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk where its forces destroyed over Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles.
Several SAS squadrons were deployed. A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot APFSDS round fired over 4, metres 2.
Over 1, Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages.
Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1, sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control.
This ultimately led to civilian casualties. In one noted incident, two USAF stealth planes bombed a bunker in Amiriyah , causing the deaths of Iraqi civilians in the shelter.
Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty to draw support from Islamic countries. The Iraqi government claimed that 2, civilians died during the air campaign.
A Harvard University study predicted tens of thousands of additional Iraqi civilian deaths by the end of due to the "public health catastrophe" caused by the destruction of the country's electrical generating capacity.
The US government refused to release its own study of the effects of the Iraqi public health crisis. An investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte estimated total civilian fatalities at about 3, from bombing, and some , from the war's other effects.
A United Nations report in March described the effect on Iraq of the US-led bombing campaign as "near apocalyptic," bringing back Iraq to the "pre-industrial age.
Some estimate that Iraq sustained between 20, and 35, fatalities. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, between 20, and 26, Iraqi military personnel were killed in the conflict while 75, others were wounded.
According to Kanan Makiya , "For the Iraqi people, the cost of enforcing the will of the United Nations has been grotesque.
Fleeing soldiers were bombed with a neat device known as a 'fuel-air explosive. The US Department of Defense reports that US forces suffered battle-related deaths 35 to friendly fire  , with one pilot listed as MIA his remains were found and identified in August A further Americans died in non-combat accidents.
In all, coalition troops were killed by Iraqi fire during the war, of whom were American, out of coalition deaths. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire.
The number of coalition wounded in combat was , including Americans. This number was much lower than expected. Among the American dead were three female soldiers.
While the death toll among coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other Allied units.
Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their action in the war, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness.
Common symptoms reported are chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and gastrointestinal disorder. Researchers found that infants born to male veterans of the war had higher rates of two types of heart valve defects.
Some children born after the war to Gulf War veterans had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War veterans' children born before the war.
Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances. This publication, called the Riegle Report , summarized testimony this committee had received establishing that the US had in the s supplied Saddam Hussein with chemical and biological warfare technology, that Hussein had used such chemical weapons against Iran and his own native Kurds, and possibly against US soldiers as well, plausibly contributing to the Gulf War Syndrome.
Significant controversy regarding the long term safety of depleted uranium exists, including claims of pyrophoric , genotoxic , and teratogenic heavy metal effects.
Many have cited its use during the war as a contributing factor to a number of major health issues in veterans and in surrounding civilian populations, including in birth defects and child cancer rates.
Scientific opinion on the risk is mixed. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper.
Also, the uranium that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs being the kidneys and the lungs.
On the night of 26—27 February , some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1, vehicles.
Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis that world opinion might accept as tolerable.
This event was later called by the media "The Highway of Death. They'd already learned to scamper off into the desert when our aircraft started to attack.
Nevertheless, some people back home wrongly chose to believe we were cruelly and unusually punishing our already whipped foes.
By February 27, talk had turned toward terminating the hostilities. Kuwait was free. We were not interested in governing Iraq. So the question became "How do we stop the killing.
Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the " bulldozer assault", wherein two brigades from the US 1st Infantry Division Mechanized were faced with a large and complex trench network, as part of the heavily fortified "Saddam Hussein Line".
After some deliberation, they opted to use anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to simply plow over and bury alive the defending Iraqi soldiers.
Not a single American was killed during the attack. Reporters were banned from witnessing the attack, near the neutral zone that touches the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
Anthony] Moreno said. A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than , Palestinians fled Kuwait during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces,  in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait.
The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens. In the 23 June edition of The Washington Post , reporter Bart Gellman wrote: "Many of the targets were chosen only secondarily to contribute to the military defeat of Iraq Military planners hoped the bombing would amplify the economic and psychological impact of international sanctions on Iraqi society They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society Iraqis understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations 92 percent of installed capacity destroyed , refineries 80 percent of production capacity , petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers including telephone networks , bridges more than , roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies.
During the conflict, coalition aircrew shot down over Iraq were displayed as prisoners of war on TV, most with visible signs of abuse.
Iraqi secret police broke his nose, dislocated his shoulder and punctured his eardrum. Only one, Chris Ryan , evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured.
Since Saudi Arabia houses Mecca and Medina, Islam's holiest sites, many Muslims were upset at the permanent military presence.
The continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia after the war was one of the stated motivations behind the 11 September terrorist attacks ,  the Khobar Towers bombing , and the date chosen for the US embassy bombings 7 August , which was eight years to the day that US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia.
In a December interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai , bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Islamic world.
On 6 August , after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait , the UN Security Council adopted Resolution which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the council's sanctions committee.
From until , the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition. During the late s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis.
Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions.
The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Formerly covering an area of around 3, square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were nearly emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and uprisings.
The draining of the Qurna Marshes also called The Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the s and s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system.
The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes and all three were drained at different times for different reasons.
Initial draining of the Central Marshes was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.
Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq , the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs out of the area through water diversion tactics.
The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces.
The fires started in January and February , and the last one was extinguished by November. The resulting fires burned uncontrollably because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews.
Land mines had been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out.
Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf , the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states.
The Overseas Development Institute ODI undertook a study in to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response.
A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.
The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism.
International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group.
The World Bank responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans. The war was heavily televised.
For the first time, people all over the world watched live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers.
Allied forces were keen to demonstrate their weapons' accuracy. But, moments later, Shepard returned as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground.
Rather, after the report was finished, announced unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia.
Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun. Still, it was CNN whose coverage gained the most popularity and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the network's history, ultimately leading to the establishment of CNN International.
The network had previously convinced the Iraqi government to allow installation of a permanent audio circuit in their makeshift bureau. When the telephones of all the other Western TV correspondents went dead during the bombing, CNN was the only service able to provide live reporting.
After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq.
The station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and Kuwait's liberation. However, it paved the way for the later introduction of Radio Five Live.
They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light. Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and Time magazine published a special issue dated 28 January , the headline "War in the Gulf" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began.
US policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled Annex Foxtrot.
Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers.
Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward.
This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, in which public opposition within the US grew throughout the war's course.
It was not only the limitation of information in the Middle East; media were also restricting what was shown about the war with more graphic depictions like Ken Jarecke 's image of a burnt Iraqi soldier being pulled from the American AP wire whereas in Europe it was given extensive coverage.
At the same time, the war's coverage was new in its instantaneousness. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and US journalists returned en masse to Baghdad.
Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately. A British crew from CBS News, David Green and Andy Thompson, equipped with satellite transmission equipment, traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the next day.
Alternative media outlets provided views opposing the war. Deep Dish Television compiled segments from independent producers in the US and abroad, and produced a hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project.
News World Order  was the title of another program in the series; it focused on the media's complicity in promoting the war, as well as Americans' reactions to the media coverage.
In San Francisco, Paper Tiger Television West produced a weekly cable television show with highlights of mass demonstrations, artists' actions, lectures, and protests against mainstream media coverage at newspaper offices and television stations.
Local media outlets in cities across the USA screened similar oppositional media. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself: Gulf War and Persian Gulf War are the most common terms for the conflict used within western countries , though it may also be called the First Gulf War to distinguish it from the invasion of Iraq and the subsequent Iraq War.
Most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the war's operational phases. These are sometimes incorrectly used as the conflict's overall name, especially the US Desert Storm :.
Precision-guided munitions were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars, although they were not used as often as more traditional, less accurate bombs.
Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed while journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by.
Precision-guided munitions amounted to approximately 7. Other bombs included cluster bombs , which disperse numerous submunitions,  and daisy cutters , 15,pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards.
Global Positioning System GPS units were relatively new at the time and were important in enabling coalition units to easily navigate across the desert.
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